Levallois technique - A three-step toolmaking method used by Neanderthals. The knapper first makes a core having a precisely shaped convex surface, then makes a striking platform at one end of the core,, Mode 3 - A category of stone tools made by striking large symmetric flakes from carefully prepared stone cores by using the Levallois technique. The Mousterian industry in Europe and the Middle Stone Age industries in Africa, Hafted - To attach a spear point, ax head, or similar implement to a handle. Hafting greatly increases the force that can be applied to the tool, Scapulae - Shoulder blade., crural index - The ratio of the length of the shin bone (tibia) to the length of the thigh bone (femur)., Flakes - A small chip of stone knocked from a larger stone core., occipital torus - A horizontal ridge at the back of the skull in Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, and archaic Homo sapiens, taurodont roots - A single broad tooth root in molars, resulting from the fusion of three roots; a typical characteristic of Neanderthals, Homo heidelbergensis - Middle Pleistocene hominins from Africa and western Eurasia with large brains and very robust skulls and postcrania., Mousterian industry - A stone tool industry characterized by points, side scrapers, and denticulates (tools with small toothlike notches on the working edge) but an absence of hand axes. Generally associated with Neanderthals, Sutures - Wavy joints between bones that mesh together and are separated by fibrous tissue, cores - A piece of stone from which smaller flakes are removed., Knapping - The process of manufacturing stone tools., Mode 1 - A category of simple stone tools made by removing flakes from cores without any systematic shaping of the core. Tools in the Oldowan industry are Mode 1 tools., Neanderthals: - A form of archaic Homo sapiens found in western Eurasia from about 127 ka to about 30 ka. Neanderthals had large brains and elongated skulls with very large faces, Cleaver: - A biface stone tool with a broad, flat edge. Cleavers are common at Acheulean sites., saffital crest - A sharp fin of bone that runs along the midline of the skull and increases the area available for the attachment of chewing muscles, Temporalis muscle - A large muscle involved in chewing. The temporalis muscles attach to the side of the cranium and to the mandible,




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