External Validity: P: A strength of the research conducted by Schaffer and Emerson is that it has good external validity., E: The study was carried out in the families own homes and most of the observations were actually completed by parents during ordinary activities and reported later., E: This means that the behaviour of the babies was unlikely to be affected by the presence of the observers, and there is a good chance that participants behaved naturally while being observed., L: It can therefore be said that research into the stages of attachment has good external validity., Method: P: A strength of the study conducted by Schaffer and Emerson is that it was carried out longitudinally., E: This means that the same children were followed up and observed regularly., E: By following the same children researchers were able to observe how attachments develop over time, E: It may have been quicker to observe different children at different ages, however the methodology used by Schaffer and Emerson could be argued to have greater internal validity as there will be no individual differences between participants., L:Therefore, Schaffer and Emerson's study into the stages of attachment has good internal validity., Limitation: P: A limitation of Schaffer and Emerson's study is that it has a limited sample size., E: The sample size of 60 babies and their carers was good considering the large amount of data that was gathered on each participant., E: However, all of the families involved came from the same district and social class, over 50 years ago, suggesting there are some issues with the sample., L: Child-rearing practices vary from one culture to another and one historical period to another, so Schaffer and Emerson's results do not generalise well to other social and historical contexts.,




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