the light bulb - Invented by Thomas Edison- allowed factories to stay open into the night, Bessemer Steel Process - This process allowed for Steel to be produced faster and cheaper- allowed for skyscrapers to be built, the telephone - Invented by Alexander Graham Bell and improved communication across the USA , Robber Barrons - business owners that made their wealth by abusing their workers through very low wages, dangerous working conditions, etc. , Captains of Industry - business leaders that created jobs by opening factories, building rail roads, and donating their money to charity, Tenements - Apartments in urban areas like New York and Chicago that were unsanitary, very crowded, and unsafe, Nativism - Anti-immigrant sentiment, New Immigrants - Immigrants that came from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Asia, they did not assimilate into American culture, and were accused of trying to change American culture, Political Bosses - Leaders of political machines like Boss Tweed in NY that used his position of power to buy votes and make money, Chinese Exclusion Act - Law passed that stopped all Chinese people coming into the country, and stopped all Chinese people from becoming American citizens, Labor Unions - Organizations of workers that used collective action such as strikes and protest to try and improve working conditions and pay., Monopolies - large corporations that controlled all aspects of a specific industry like Rockefellers American Oil , Dawes Act - the forced assimilation of Native Americans by taking away their reservation lands, and forcing their children to go to boarding schools that destroyed their culture. , Homestead Act - Law signed by Abraham Lincoln that essentially gave away land to American citizens- they had to live there for 5 years and improve on the land (farm), transcontinental railroad - railroad that connected the east and west coast of the United States,

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