1) Name the structures found in animal cells. 2) Name the two components of the cell membrane. 3) State the term that can be used to describe the structure of DNA. 4) Name the molecules described as 'biological catalysts'. 5) State the purpose of genetic engineering. 6) Name the molecules which control the reactions in respiration. 7) Name the structures found in plant cells. 8) State the term used to describe the fact the cell membrane only lets small soluble molecules pass through. 9) State the word used to describe the fact that certain bases always pair together. 10) Explain what enzymes do in cells. 11) Name the molecules used to cut the desired gene for genetic engineering. 12) Name the form of energy which is stored inside the glucose molecule 13) Name three structures found in both animal and plant cells. 14) Name three structures found in plant cells but not in animal cells. 15) What does selectively permeable mean? 16) DNA carries the genetic information for making _________ 17) Name the substances that enzymes act on. 18) Describe what happens immediately after the gene has been removed and the plasmid has been cut open. 19) Name the molecule which is generated from breaking down glucose. 20) Name the structures found in bacterial cells. 21) Give an example of a molecule that can pass through the cell membrane unaided. 22) Name the four DNA bases. 23) State the name given to the substances that enzyme action creates. 24) Name the type of organism produced by the process of genetic engineering. 25) First stage of respiration - glucose is broken down into two molecules of ________ 26) Name the structures found in fungal cells. 27) Give an example of a molecule that is too large to pass through the cell membrane unaided. 28) Describe the complementary base pairs in DNA. 29) What is the active site of the enzyme? 30) Name a human protein that can be mass-produced using genetic engineering. 31) Name the two substances produced by aerobic respiration 32) What is the cell wall composed of in plant cells? 33) What are diffusion and osmosis examples of? 34) Describe how the bases in DNA determine the structure of proteins. 35) State the name given to the the enzyme controlled reaction where large molecules are broken down to smaller ones. 36) Name the type of respiration pathway that takes place if no oxygen is present. 37) What is the difference between the cell walls in plant, fungal and bacterial cells? 38) Describe passive transport. 39) What is a gene? 40) Describe what happens in a synthesis reaction. 41) Name the product(s) of fermentation in animals. 42) What is the function of the nucleus? 43) Of the four cell types, which ones contain a nucleus? 44) Give the definition for diffusion. 45) Describe genetic engineering stage 4 46) What is the function of mRNA? 47) Are enzymes changed or unchanged by their reaction. 48) Name the product(s) of fermentation in plants. 49) Of the four cell types, which one doesn't contain a nucleus? 50) Explain why diffusion is important. 51) Where is mRNA produced in the cell? 52) What other factor, apart from temperature, can affect the rate of a enzyme-controlled reaction? 53) Name the product(s) of fermentation in yeast. 54) What is the function of the cell membrane? 55) Give the definition for osmosis. 56) State the name of the building blocks that make up proteins. 57) Explain what denatured means. 58) How many molecules of ATP does fermentation produce? 59) Of the four cell types, which ones contain a cell membrane? 60) What is the function of the cytoplasm? 61) State the word used to describe what happens to an animal cell that has been placed in pure water. 62) Where are proteins synthesised in the cell? 63) List the five examples of the different functions of proteins. 64) Describe the difference between the number of molecules produced in aerobic respiration versus fermentation. 65) What is the function of the cell wall? 66) Describe genetic engineering stage 3 67) State the word used to describe what happens to an animal cell that has been placed in a strong salt solution. 68) Name the base that pairs with Adenine 69) What does enzyme denaturation affect. 70) State the location(s) in a cell where aerobic respiration takes place. 71) Of the four cell types, which ones contain a cell wall? 72) State the word used to describe what happens to a plant cell that has been placed in pure water. 73) Name the base that pairs with Cytosine 74) When catalase acts on the substrate hydrogen peroxide, what products are produced? 75) State the location(s) in a cell where fermentation takes place. 76) What is the function of the chloroplasts? 77) Name the form of cell membrane transport that requires energy. 78) The order of bases is important as it determines the order of which other molecule? 79) Give the definition for respiration. 80) What is the function of the mitochondria? 81) Name the form of cell membrane transport that does not require energy. 82) Which cell structure does mRNA travel to when it leaves the nucleus? 83) How many molecules of ATP are yielded from the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate? 84) What is the function of the ribosome? 85) Describe active transport. 86) What is the function of the plasmids? 87) What type of enzyme reaction involves phosphorylase? 88) The temperature or pH at which an enzyme works best is known as its _________ 89) Why are bacteria often used in genetic engineering? 90) Describe genetic engineering stage 1
National 5 Unit 1
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