Mutation - A change to the quanity or base sequence of the DNA of an organism., Substitution mutation - Where a nucleotide in the DNA molecule is replaced by another with a different base., Deletion mutation - Where a nucleotide is lost or removed from the DNA sequence, Chromosome mutation - A change in the structure of a whole chromosome, Polyploidy - Where an organism has 3 or more sets of chromosomes rather than the normal 2., Non-disjunction - Where individual homolohous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis., Meiosis - Process of cell division which creates gametes and produces 4 varied daughter cells., Gamete - A sex cell, sperm or egg, Crossing over - Where portions of chromatids are broken off and recombine with another chromatid, Independent segregation - Where the chromosomes line up with their homologous partner in a random order. This creates variation when the chromosomes divide.,

A level Biology Chapter 9- 9.1+9.2

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