Spain: King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Christopher Columbus, Columbian Exchange is initiated., Encountered the Taino Indians, Conquistadors, Hernan Cortes and the Aztecs, Ponce de Leon and the Fountain of Youth, Francisco Pizarro and the Incas, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado and the search for the 7 Cities of Cibola, St. Augustine, Florida, England (Great Britain): John Cabot (1497), John Smith, Jamestown, swampy area filled with mosquitos, Roanoke, John White and Sir Walter Raleigh, Pocahontas' intervention saves the colony, John Rolfe and tobacco, Starving Time, Croatoan, France: Jacques Cartier, discovery of valuable beaver fur as a trading commodity, coureurs de bois, Samuel de Champlain, Quebec and the St. Lawrence River, established a trading base for explorers, soldiers, missionaries, traders, and fur trappers, harsh, cold climate kept settlers away, allied with Huron Indians, Robert Cavelier de La Salle and the Mississippi River, New Orleans, Netherlands: Henry Hudson, traded iron pots, beads, and blankets worth about $24 to get Manhattan Island, Peter Minuit, allied with Iroquois Indians, Peter Stuyvesant, New Amsterdam, renamed New York, taken over by the English in 1664, establish trading posts along the Hudson River, forced to surrender to the English because of being outnumbered and outgunned,





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