Andrew Carnegie - multi-millionaire who founded a steel monopoly; also wrote the Gospel of Wealth , John D. Rockefeller - founded Standard Oil, which had a monopoly by controlling 90% of the oil refining industry, Transcontinental Railroad - a railway system extending across the continent, industrialization - the development of industries in a country or region on a wide scale., laissez-faire - a policy that government should interfere as little as possible in the nation’s economy, investors - one who puts money into a company in order to gain a future financial reward, land grants - a grant of land by the federal government, especially for roads, railroads, or agricultural colleges, labor unions - an organization of workers formed for the purpose of advancing its members’ interests, entrepreneurship - one who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise, free enterprise - the profit motive that attracts many people of high ability and ambition into business, vertical integration - the combining of companies that supply equipment and services needed for a particular industry, horizontal integration - the combining of many firms engaged in the same type of business into one corporation, monopoly - total control of a type of industry by one person or one company, trust - a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition, Thomas Edison - invented the electric generator and lightbulb filament, which led to electric lighting being more affordable. This led to the widespread use of electric power in cities. , Alexander Graham Bell  - invented the telephone, which transformed the speed of communication and improved the US standard of living. , immigrants - one who enters and becomes established in a country other than that of his or her original nationality, Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 - barred Chinese immigration for 10 years, and prevented Chinese already in the United States from becoming citizens., tenements - multifamily apartments, usually dark, crowded, and barely meeting minimum living standards, nativism - hostility toward immigrants by native-born people,




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