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Put these classification groups in order starting with the largest group: Species, Genus, Phylum, Order, Class, Family - Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, What do we mean by the term species? - A group of organisms that are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring, Describe the binominal naming system for species. - Every species is given a two part Latin name. The first part is the genus and the second part is the species, What would be the food chain for this pyramid of biomass? - oaktree ---->caterpillars----->birds------> fleas, Is this diagram more likely to show a pyramid of number or biomass? How can you tell? - A pyramid of number. Pyramids of biomass are almost always pyramid shaped, but pyramid of numbers can be other shapes, What do bars in a pyramid of biomass represent? - the dry mass of living material at each stage of a food chain, How do you calculate the percentage efficiency of energy transferred in a food chain? - You divide the available energy to the next level by the energy that was available to the previous level and then multiply by 100, What happens to the amount of energy as you move up through each stage in a food chain? - It decreases between each stage as it is transferred into less useful forms such as heat in respiration or lost during excretion or egestion., What is a parasitic relationship? - A parasite lives off a host. They take what they need to survive without giving anything back., What is the difference between intraspecific and interspecific competition - Intraspecific is when organisms of the same species compete for the same resources. Interspecific competition is where organisms of different species compete for the same resources, What is happening in this predator prey graph? - The prey population increases and decreases in a pattern that is closely followed by, but slightly out of phase with, the predator population. As the prey population increases, there's more food available for predators, so the predator population then increases. This causes the prey numbers to go down and then the predator numbers fall as well., What is mutualism? - It's a relationship between two organisms where they both benefit, How might organisms that live near super hot volcanic vents be adapted to live in extreme conditions? - they may have biochemical adaptations like enzymes that work best at high temperatures , Give some anatomical adaptations that organisms might have to reduce heat loss in cold environments? - small surface area to volume ratio, thick fur, layer of blubber, counter-current heat exchange system, Describe how counter current heat exchange systems in penguins minimise heat loss - The blood vessels going to and from the feet pass close to each other, which allows heat to transfer bewteen them. This means that veins carrying blood away from the cold feet can pick up heat from the arteries travelling from the heart. This stops the cold blood from the feet cooling down the rest of the body, What behavioural adaptations do animals that live in cold environments have? - Huddle together to keep warm, hibernate, migrate to warmer areas, How are desert plants adapted to having little water? - covered in thick waxy layer which helps reduce water loss, rounded shape and spines instead of leaves, giving them a small surface area to volume ratio, shallow extensive roots, How are desert animals anatomically adapted to stay cool and minimise water loss? - Small so have a large surface area to volume ratio which increases heat loss, have large ears to increase heat loss, have a fat store in only one part of the body to stop the rest of the body being too hot, produce small amounts of concentrated urine, What behavioural adaptations do desert animals have? - they spend the day in the shade or underground, they bathe in water to increase heat loss, What role do fossil fuels play in the carbon cycle? - when they are burnt they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, allowing the carbon cycle to continue, In what ways do animals contribute to the carbon cycle? - They eat plants which contain carbon compounds, they release carbon dioxide during respiration, carbon compounds are released into the soil when they die or produce waste, How does respiration contribute to the carbon cycle? - Animals, plants, soil bacteria and fungi all respire, releasing carbon dioxide into the stmosphere. This is then taken in by plants which use it for photosynthesis, How is carbon recycled in the oceans? - Some sea creatures make shells using carbonates. When they die, the shells fall to the seabed and over a long period of time form limestone. The carbon can be release from these rocks as carbon dioxide because of weathering or during volcanic eruptions, Why do legume plants and bacteria found in their root nodules have a mutualistic relationship? - The plants provide the bacteria with food and the bacteria provide the plant with nitrogen compounds, What is the role of denitrifying bacteria in the nitrogen cycle? - they convert nitrates into nitrogen gas. This is released back into the atmosphere and can be used again by plants once it has been fixed, What is the role of decomposers in the nitrogen cycle? - decomposers (bacteria and fungi) in teh soil break down proteins in rotting plants and animals, and urea in animal waste, into ammonia. This returns the nitrogen compounds to the soil so the nitrogen can be reused, What do plants use nitrates for? - To make protein for growth,