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Age of the Earth - 4.6 Billion Years, Eras - Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, Periods - Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic, Cambrian, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Quaternary, Epoch of Human appearance - Holocene, Era of the Dinosaurs - Mesozoic, Atmosphere - Gasses that surround and protect the Earth, Hydrosphere - all the waters on the earth's surface, such as lakes and seas, and sometimes including water over the earth's surface, such as clouds., Biosphere - Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere., Geosphere - The mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth; extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust., geology - the study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth, Mantle is made of - Hot Dense molten rock called magma, Layers where convection occurs - mantle & outer core, Convection in the mantle - Is what causes crustal tectonic plates to move, Convection in the Outer Core - Is what cause the Earth's magnetic field, Outer Core is made of - liquid iron and nickel, Inner core is made of - solid iron and nickel, What is convection? - heat transfer in a fluid in which hot fluid rises and cold fluid sinks, setting up a cycle, What does molten mean? - melted or partly melted, GEOLOGY - The science that deals with the earth's physical structure and substance, its history, and the processes that act on it., LAW OF SUPERPOSITION - States that in any undisturbed set of rock layers, the youngest layer is on top and the oldest on bottom, each layer being younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it., CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY - The idea that (1) the plates were once joined as a super-continent, but (2) have slowly drifted to where they are today., PANGAEA - The super continent 200 million years ago, PLATE TECTONICS - The movement of the crustal plates due to the convection currents in the mantle., SUBDUCTION - The downward movement of the edge of a plate of the earth's crust into the mantle beneath another plate., SEA FLOOR SPREADING - The formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at mid-ocean ridges where two oceanic plates are moving apart., CONVERGENT MOVEMENT - Where two plates are colliding., DIVERGENT MOVEMENT - Where two plates are moving apart. The space created can fill with new crustal material from molten magma that forms below., TRANSFORM MOVEMENT - Where plates slide passed each other. They can occur underwater or on land, and crust is neither destroyed nor created. Because of friction, the plates cannot simply slide past each other. Rather, stress builds up in both plates and when the energy is released it causes earthquakes., MAGMA - Hot, dense, molten rock within (inside) the earth., LAVA - Hot, dense, molten rock that has been released from within the earth that has mixed with the earth's atmosphere.,

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