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ASTRONOMICAL UNIT (AU) - It is used to measure distances INSIDE our solar system and is equal to the distance between the sun and the earth., LIGHT YEAR (LY) - It is used to measure distances OUTSIDE our solar system and is equal to the distance that light travels in one year., PROXIMA CENTAURI - The closest star to earth OTHER THAN the sun., THE SUN - Our Star…THE closest start to Earth., POLARIS - It is the North Star and is located above the North Pole (Not Exactly)., GEOCENTRIC MODEL - The model of our solar system where the earth is at the center and the sun and other planets go around the earth., HELIOCENTRIC MODEL - The model of our solar system where the sun is at the center and the planets all go around the sun., ROTATION - The SPINNING of the earth on its axis. It is what causes day and night. The Earth’s axis is tilted at about 23.5 degrees. One full rotation takes 23 Hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds (about 24 hours)., REVOLUTION - The path the earth takes around the sun (orbit). This is what causes the length of the year to be 365 ¼ days long. The ¼ day’s are why we have a Leap Year every 4 years., CAUSE OF THE SEASONS - The tilt of the earth is what causes the seasons. The hemisphere tilted towards the sun gets more direct sunlight and therefore has summer., VERNAL EQUINOX - The first day of spring (March 19th/20th). There is equal amount of daylight (12 hours) and darkness (12 hours), SUMMER SOLSTICE - The first day of summer (June 21st). The “longest” day of the year because there is the most light, least night (darkness), AUTUMNAL EQUINOX - The first day of fall (September 23rd). Equal amounts of daylight and darkness., WINTER SOLSTICE - The first day of winter (December 21st). The “shortest” day of the year because there is the least light, most night (darkness), SOLAR ECLIPSE - When the moon crosses between the sun and the earth which casts a shadow on the earth’s surface (seen during the day), LUNAR ECLIPSE - When the earth is between the sun and the moon and a shadow is cast on the moon (seen at night), WAXING MOON - The stages of the moon between a new moon and a full moon where the moon appears to be getting larger., WANING MOON - The stages of the moon between a full moon and the new moon where the moon appears to be getting smaller., CRESCENT MOON - When less than a quarter/half of the moon is visible., GIBBOUS MOON - when more than a quarter/half of the moon is visible but not a full moon., MOON CYCLE - 28 ½ days from new moon to new moon., TIDES - They are cause by the moon’s gravitational pull as the on the water on the Earth’s Surface as the Earth rotates. There are 2 high, and 2 low in a 24 hour period., SPRING TIDES - a tide just after a new or full moon, when there is the greatest difference between high and low water., NEAP TIDES - a tide just after the first or third quarters of the moon when there is the least difference between high and low water.,
ASTRONOMY INTRO UNIT VOCAB
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