Background Information: After WWII Korea liberated from Japanese occupation, The Peninsular is divided along the 38 Parallel, Kim Il Sung is communist leader of the North, US Troops leave Korea 1948 - but provide military aid, Syngman Rhee is non communist leader of the South, China turns Communist (October 1949), War - Opening shots: North invades South (25 June), Northern troops advance rapidly to Pusan, UN Security Council passes Resolution 82 - condemning the invasion, Soviet Union are boycotting the Security Council, UN passes Resolution 83 - Establishing a UN force, June 27 Truman orders US naval and air support to South Korea, UN Counter Offensive: Douglas MacArthur organises Inchon counter offensive, UN forces cross 38 Parallel and reach the Yalu River, 300,000 Chinese invade (October 1950), UN forces driven back to the 38 Parallel, Truman gives order to 'rollback' the communist north, MacArthur sacked by Truman - General Ridgeway takes command, Stalemate: UN forces fight a 'holding action', War becomes a stalemate (Static war), Peace talks proposed and begin (July 1951), Disagreements over 'Peace Terms', Stalin dies (March 1953), Eisenhower replaces Truman as President, The 'End': Armistice signed July 27 1953 (Panmunjom), Arguments over POW repatriation, Sygnman Rhee refused to sign the Armistice, US intensify air war to force ‘peace’, China want ‘out’ - war too costly , North Korea uncertain of continued support , Outcomes: 37,000 US military deaths, 4 million civilian casualties (North and South), Incomplete 'victory' for containment, Uneasy 'truce / armistice', US commitment to provide aid to South Korea, DMZ created,
Korean War - Background, Phases and Outcomes
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