Background (Context): 1959 Cuban Revolution , Castro overthrew Batista, Land reforms, Castro nationalises American business asserts, CIA plan to overthrow Castro, Cuban exiles trained in Guatemala , News of the training leaked!, US concerned by Castro’s political beliefs , Eisenhower breaks diplomatic ties with Cuba, US embargo on exports to Cuba, The Invasion: 1400 exiles land at Giron beach, Air strike of Cuban airfields fails, 20,000 Cuban soldiers mobilised, JFK calls off further air support, 17 April 1961, Cuban airforce controls skies, 1200 exiles surrendered, 100 exiles killed, JFK wanted ‘plausible deniability’, Out of date maps + poor intelligence , Outcomes: CIA call it ‘a perfect failure’ , Captured exiles imprisoned (20 months , Prisoners exchanged for $53 million of food and medicine , Castro and Khrushchev tighten ties, CIA initiate Operation Mongoose, Cuban links with USSR tighten, USSR provide Cuba with conventional weapons , Operation Anadyr , Huge diplomatic embarrassment for JFK, USSR place IRBMs + SRBMs in Cuba,

Write an account of the Bay of Pigs invasion, April 1960




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