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acquired trait - A trait that is not in your genes but is picked up from environmental factors during your lifetime, cells - smallest unit of life, clone - An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced, codominant trait - a single gene trait in which two different dominant gene alleles are both expressed equally such as blood type, hazel eyes, etc, DNA - Chains of genetic code contained within our genes, that determine nearly everything about us, dominant traits - Traits that always show in a person even if only one gene of the pair is inherited for the trait (you have two genes for every trait), genes - A section of a chromosome that contains the information for one trait, genetics - The branch of science that deals with the way that traits are passed from parents to children, inheritance - The process in which genetic material is passed from parents to their offspring, nature - Your physical features and characteristics given to you from your parents in your genetic blueprint, nurture - Your characteristics and things about you that you got from your experiences in life and the environment around you, offspring - Product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents, recessive trait - a trait that is apparent only when two recessive genes for the same characteristic are inherited, and is hidden if paired with a dominant gene, trait - A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes, chromosome - Thread-like structures in the nucleus of a cell that carry the information for the characteristics of a living organism., Gregor Mendel - The "father" of genetics; He was the first to study the patterns of traits being passed on., sperm - The male reproductive cell; Contains 23 chromosomes, egg - The female reproductive cell; Contains 23 chromosomes, zygote - "The building block cell"; A fertilized egg; contains 46 chromosomes, mitosis - The process where cells duplicate millions of times, nucleus - The control center of a cell. Contains chromosomes, Which Contain Genes, which contain DNA (Deoxy-ribo Neucleic Acid), genotype - (TYPE O GENE) This refers to the person's gene combination. It tells whether the person's gene combination is hybrid, purebred recessive or purebred dominant (Tt, tt, or TT), hybrid - A gene combination with one dominant gene for a trait (ex. ability to roll tongue- T -Notice the CAPITAL letter) and one recessive gene for a trait (ex. not being able to roll the tongue- t - Notice the lowercase letter). The dominant gene will be the one that shows through., heterozygous - This is another term for HYBRID, purebred - A gene combination with two of the same types of genes. The gene pair can be either dominant (purebred dominant- TT) or both recessive (purebred recessive- tt)., homozygous - This is another term for PUREBRED., phenotype - (PHYSICAL FEATURES) This refers to the trait that is visible in the person. Does the person have freckles, or don't they; have dimples, or don't they?, punnett square - An instrument used for determining possible genetic outcomes based on biological parents' information,
Genetics Introductory Vocabulary
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