A robot is a machine that does work for people. The word ‘robot’ appeared in the 1920s and it was first used in a science fiction story. In real life, the robot was invented later, in 1954. There are different kinds of robots which are used in different industries. Most of them are operated with the help of a computer program. Instead of humans, robots do hard and boring work in unpleasant or dangerous environments. They usually work faster and more accurately than people. They never get tired and do not make mistakes. Nowadays robots are often used for domestic needs –– to clean houses or to look after sick and elderly people. Scientists say that soon robots will become a normal part of our life, like mobiles and computers today., Nowadays people can’t imagine their kitchen without a refrigerator. The first refrigerators appeared at the end of the 18th century. They looked different: they were just iceboxes. The refrigerators of the past were just wooden boxes, sometimes lined inside with metal. People put ice into the box and then placed the food inside to keep it cool. The refrigerator, similar to the one that we have now, was produced by General Electric in 1911, in France. It was very expensive. In those days, with the same money you could buy two cars. Today, in developed countries almost every family has enough money to buy a refrigerator for their kitchen. It’s hard to imagine how difficult and uncomfortable our lives would be without a refrigerator., Since 2007 high-speed trains have become a common type of transport in Europe. They make it possible to cut travel times by hours. The trains travel at 350 kilometres an hour, and this is not the limit! The only problem for the engineers is the loud noise the trains produce. People living in the areas the trains travel through suffer from the noise greatly. For the passengers, the situation is different. For their comfort, all the carriages are made sound-proof from the inside. Travelling on high-speed trains is comfortable and pleasant. In the future, a high-speed railroad network could cover most of Europe. For example, a trip from Paris to Rome could take only 3 hours!, The first vacuum cleaner was designed in 1869. Since then, vacuum cleaners have changed a lot. Nowadays the robot vacuum cleaner is getting more and more popular. This device cleans a house automatically. Following a programme, the robot drives slowly around the house and makes it cleaner. It operates with brushes and a tube. The robot is so flexible that it can get under a table or sofa or reach dust in corners. Some advanced models can also wash floors of all kinds. These functions are provided by a complicated electronic system and sensors inside. The vacuum cleaner looks like a plate and can be kept in the corner. It is friendly to children and animals and works on electricity., The mobile phone has become an important part of our everyday life. We can’t imagine our lives without it now. Thanks to the mobile phone we can keep in contact with our relatives and friends at any time. We use them to text and to send emails, to share photos and videos. We can use the Internet and listen to music and do lots of other things. However, according to surveys, mobile phone users mostly spend their time on games and social networking. Around 80 percent of the world’s population has a mobile phone. The mobile phone industry is the fastest growing industry in the world. From 1983 to 2016, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over 7 billion.,

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