Some dog population genetics show ____ ours, such as ____ the ability to digest grains, but other lineages ____. Dogs were the first animals ____. And they ____ us as we changed lifestyles ____ hunting/gathering to farming to city living.“The dog is a species that is ____ ____ human history.”Anders Bergström, a postdoc ____ the Francis Crick Institute in London. He and his colleagues studied the genomes of 27 ancient dog bones ____ around the world. They found that ____ 11,000 years ago:Bergström: “We see that the dog started to ____ genetically. So we find ____ at least five major lineages of dogs already at this time.”____ have been found in Europe, Asia and the Americas ____ similar ____ how humans moved and mixed. Bergström: “____ the history of dogs seems to have been shaped ____ human history, so likely ____ how when humans moved they would have brought their dogs with them.”Ancient humans clearly found dogs ____Bergström: “In the Arctic there's ____ that ____ actually ____ very early and people used them for the ____ sledding, perhaps ____ 10,000 years ago.” A few modern ____—like the African Basenji, New Guinea Singing Dog or Australian Dingo—are ____ one of the five ancient lineages. Most other modern breeds derive at least ____ from European dogs, which came to dominate dog genomes.Bergström: “If you ____ four or five thousand years ago there's a great ____ dogs in Europe, but ____ there was probably a single population that expanded and basically replaced other populations in Europe. This was something that we did not ____, and you couldn't really see just from studying archaeology. But when we look ____ the DNA we see that there's all this diversity in the past that is not represented ____ present day dogs. ”The study is in the journal Science, where you’ll find maps of dog migrations ____ time. One ____ about 11,000 years ago it looks like dogs spread more widely than humans did. Bergström: “That's actually a process we don't really understand. So how could the dog spread so quickly and widely? We're not ____ any human migrations at this time that could have ____ the spread of the dog but somehow it spreads very quickly to human groups all across the world, perhaps because it was a very useful thing for these early human ____ groups.” Humans were also useful ____ dogs. Prehistoric Petcos didn’t exist, so dogs probably ate what humans did. And as humans started to farm, both species quickly ____ digest more ____. The number of copies of a ____ in both humans and dogs increased in the generations following the invention of agriculture.Bergström: “Yeah, so that's a very striking example of ____ between humans and dogs…____ it's kind of interesting to think of the dog as a kind of an evolutionary experiment that runs ____ human history and ____ the same lifestyle changes that we do.”—Eliene Augenbraun

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