Wilmot Proviso - An amendment offered that would prohibit slavery in any territory taken from Mexico, Popular Sovereignty - Territorial residents, not congress, would decide if a state was a slave or free state, Compromise of 1850 - Four step plan that admitted CA as a free state, allowed NM and UT to decide slavery for themselves, ended the slave trade in DC and created the Fugutive Slave Act, Kansas-Nebraska Act - Created two new territories and allowed them to chose for themselves if they would be slave or free states, Dred Scott Decision - Supreme Court ruling that slaves and free blacks were not citizens and slaves were considered property, John Brown's Raid - Ill-fated attempt to free VA's slaves with an attack on a federal arsenal, Fort Sumter - First shots fired in the Civil War, Emancipation Proclamation - Freed slaves in all Confederate states in rebellion, Radical Republicans - group who favored abolition and advocated harsh treatment of the defeated South, Homestead Act - provided settlers with 160 acres of free land in exchange for improving the land within five years, Land Grant College Act - sale of public lands to states for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges, Thirteenth Amendment - Freed slaves throughout the United States, Black Codes - Laws passed denying many rights of citizenship to free black Americans after the Civil War, Fourteenth Amendment - guaranteed every citizen equality before the law , Fifteenth Amendment - guaranteed the right to vote, regardless of race, Ku Klux Klan - vigilante group that terrorized black people, Sharecropping - Labor system where landowners furnished homes, animals and tools in exchange for a share of the laborer's crop, Compromise of 1877 - Settling of the 1876 election- Hayes became president and Reconstruction ended in the South,

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