John Rolfe introduces the variety of tobacco that Englishmen prefer to the colony at Jamestown. The colony becomes profitable and begins to attract many more settlers. Rolfe will marry Pocahontas, creating a tentative peace between the colonists and local natives. +5, The French efforts in North America focused more on the fur trade. This meant there were few French Settlers to their territories. This led to intermarriage with natives. While profitable, fur trading had limited resources meant the French only established permanent colonies in Canada. + 5, Most English colonists came to the New World to be farmers. They established permanent settlements that would continue to attract English settlers for decades. +4, Different colonies offered different opportunities: Maryland was seen as a Catholic refuge, Rhode Island offered religious toleration and North Carolina welcomed in pirates and outcasts from other colonies +4, The middle colonies supported a flourishing export economy based on cereal crops and attracted a broad range of European migrants, leading to societies with greater cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity and tolerance. +6, Concepts of self-government are an attraction to religious groups like the Puritans. Being 3000 miles from England allows for a great deal of autonomy. The seeds of democracy are planted in America. +12, The headright system was started in Jamestown, as a way to attract new settlers to the region and address the labor shortage. Settlers who paid their way to Virginia received 50 acres of land. However, most of the workers who came were indentured servants, people who pledged to perform 5-7 years of labor. Slave owners could receive 50 acres of land for every slave they brought in as well. – 3, You offend the local natives. Then one of your colonists kills two of them over a land dispute. Later that week the Native attack your colony and wipe out over 60% of the colonists. Lose 2/3 of you score or 25 points, whichever is more., King James I takes control of the Virginia colony and appoints a royal governor. This was supposed to take away the power of the House of Burgesses. But the governors learned they needed the House to get anything done. + 4, The Navigation Laws regulated colonial shipping and required colonial shipping to go through England. This benefitted England more than the colonists. This created distrust between the colonists and England. -5, Royal governors realize that enforcing the Navigation Laws will make their job much more difficult. Some put very little effort into enforcing the laws. Colonists enjoy the indifference. This time period was known as Salutary Neglect. +3, Triangular trade firmly establishes global trade. Unfortunately it also empowers the slave system. Eventually over 11 million Africans will be sold into slavery. -4, British Event: 1649: Charles I is beheaded and Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell assumes power in England. Immediate American Impact: Cromwell largely ignores Puritan New England, much to the dismay of the colonists. Long-Term American Impact: Sets precedent for removing leaders who do not protect the rights of the citizens +4, Decimated by diseases and introduced to new European goods, natives were forced to change their social and political identities. This helps colonists in the land competition. +6, Puritan beliefs encourage marriage at a young age, which is a factor in the increased birthrate in the American Colonies. More people stimulate economic growth. +10, Displaced English settlers from Barbados brought their slaves with them to the American colonies. They also brought the Barbados slave code, which put in place a legal system on how to govern slavery. -7, James Ogelthorpe successfully repels Spanish attacks, establishing Georgia as a buffer between the Spanish and English colonies. + 6, Of the 102 Pilgrims from the Mayflower, only 44 would survive the first winter. The next year the survivors celebrated a successful harvest with the first American Thanksgiving. +4, Anne Hutchinson challenged the Puritan authorities’ view of predestination, arguing that those who were saved did not have to follow the laws. Eventually banished, she was one of the first women to be a voice in religion or politics in Colonial America. +4, After criticizing Puritan leaders in the Bay Colony (Massachusetts), Roger Williams flees to Rhode Island where he establishes religious freedom, even for Jews and Catholics. +7, The Dominion of New England, governed by Sir Edmund Andros, was established to help enforce the Navigation Laws. The heavy-handed Andros was unpopular and eventually chased back to England. Americans fighting for their own rights was becoming more and more common. +4, Enlightenment ideas from Europe make their way to America. Combined with the concept of self-government already established in the colonies, Enlightenment principles will formulate anti-authoritarian ideas in America. + 6, Land competition boils over in Virginia when poor, landless men attack natives. The men then turn on the governor for his policies of favoring the wealthy and perceived favoring of natives. Bacon’s Rebellion made plantation owners look for a more reliable work force: African slaves. -8, King Phillip’s War was another example of conflict arising due to land competition between natives and an increasing number of colonists. The Natives in the New England colonies would never pose a serious threat again. +4, The Pequot War was the first war between natives and Europeans in British North America. The conflict arose due to land competition between natives and an increasing number of colonists. The Colonists would end the war by destroying a village and shooting the fleeing survivors. -5, As more people arrive from Europe, colonists push westward into “unsettled” land. This creates tension and competition between the settlers, as well as with native groups. -3, DIVERSITY: Scots-Irish, who are actually Scottish Highlanders who had been pushed from Scotland to Ireland, immigrate to the Colonies. They brought with them Presbyterianism and a hatred for the British government. +3, DIVERSITY: Germans, many of them fleeing religious persecution, the effects of war, or little economic opportunity immigrate to the colonies. Mistakenly called the Pennsylvania Dutch (for Deutsch), Germans brought with them Lutheranism, a strong work ethic, beer, and no loyalty to Britain. +3, DIVERSITY: Religious groups, such as French Huguenots and Jews, immigrated to the Colonies in search of religious freedom and economic opportunity. They brought their culture and had no loyalty to the British government. +3, DIVERSITY: The flourishing Atlantic Slave trade will eventually bring over eleven million Africans to the New World. Africans would bring their religious customs, language, and musical influences to the New World. +3, Slave Revolt: Freedom seeking slaves revolt in New York in 1712. The debate on the morality of slavery heats up. - 8, Slave Revolt: The South Carolina slave revolt at Stono River continues to show that subjugated peoples are not “benefitting” from the system of the “civilized” Christian world. -8, Jacobus Arminus begins to preach that Free Will, not predestination, determines a person’s fate with God. Impact: Puritan influence weakens tremendously, and plants the seeds for the Great Awakening. +6, Great Awakening: Led by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, who argued that salvation is through God’s grace only, a religious revival moves through the colonies. Impact: Orthodox clergymen (old lights) lose influence to New Lights, changing the structure of Christianity in America. +4, Great Awakening: The Religious revival of the 1730s and 1740s was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people. It crossed normal social and economic barriers. +4, Great Awakening: Impact: Many churches and even entire denominations split over the doctrinal changes proposed by Edwards and Whitefield, leading to a greater diversity of Christianity in America +4, Early education in the NE colonies is due to the Puritan emphasis on reading the bible. Education in the south struggles to develop because the population is so spread out amongst plantations. +4, Ben Franklin establishes the first privately supported library in America. +4, Roads in Colonial America were terrible, consistently delaying travel and communication. -3, Being so spread out meant Colonists travelled a lot. This led to the development of taverns along the travel routes. Taverns were an interesting collection of people from all walks of life and seen as a grassroots birthplace of democracy. +2, An economic decline in the cloth industry of England in the early 17th Century pushes men into indentured servitude in the American Colonies. +3, The Salem Witch trials were an example of social stratification gone wrong. Wealthy women were accused by poorer women of witchcraft. The rigid and reactionary Puritans convicted and lynched twenty individuals before the hysteria died down. -4, Environment: Colonists adapted to their environment. In the South, the colonists began growing rice, sugar, and cotton because there is a long growing season. These choices shaped their destiny. +4, Environment: Colonists adapted to their environment. In the Chesapeake region (VA, MD, DE) tobacco was king. +4, Led by wealthy Englishman William Penn, the Quakers founded the colony of Pennsylvania. Quakers did not obey civil authorities, were against warfare, and soon were against slavery. In America they established good relations with natives and a colony known for its tolerance. +5, The Dutch attempts at colonizing were unsuccessful because they 1)were too involved in Native conflicts; 2)their sponsor the Dutch West India Company cared more about short-term profits than long- term settlement; and 3) the English saw them as encroaching on their territory and eventually captured New York, ending Dutch colonialism in America. +6, War erupts between Spain and England when an English officer has his ear cut off by a Spanish commander. The War of Jenkins Ear was fought mostly in the Caribbean but combined with the War of Austrian Succession. The peace terms made colonists angry, as areas they had fought for and won were taken away. -4, Being 3000 miles away meant that colonists were usually on their own, whether they wanted English help or not. As third and fourth generations were born in the colonies, they had less loyalty to the English than their forefathers, an important step in creating an American identity. +12.

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