MOUTH ____ starts in the ____ or oral cavity. Inside the mouth, there are specialised glands called ____ located underneath the tongue as well as by the pharynx (throat) which produce and secrete ____, the ____ digestive juice made. Saliva contains the enzyme ____ which catalyse the breakdown of ____ or carbohydrate foods. Starch is broken down or hydrolysed into ____ and ____, simpler sugar units. The food is then ____ by saliva and is then rolled into a ball called a ____ by the action of the teeth and tongue. The upper esophageal sphincter muscle (____) located at the base of the pharynx which opens at the ____ or oesophagus relaxes and the bolus is then pushed into the gullet. MOUTH ____ starts in the ____ or oral cavity. Inside the mouth, there are specialised glands called ____ located underneath the tongue as well as by the pharynx (throat) which produce and secrete ____, the ____ digestive juice made. Saliva contains the enzyme ____ which catalyse the breakdown of ____ or carbohydrate foods. Starch is broken down or hydrolysed into ____ and ____, simpler sugar units. The food is then ____ by saliva and is then rolled into a ball called a ____ by the action of the teeth and tongue. The upper esophageal sphincter muscle (____) located at the base of the pharynx which opens at the ____ or oesophagus relaxes and the bolus is then pushed into the gullet. GULLET OR OESOPHAGUS Inside the gullet, the bolus is propelled down the tube by a process known as ____, the ____ contraction and relaxation of the ____ circular muscles of the gullet. The lower esophageal sphincter muscle (LES) then relaxes and the bolus is then propelled inside the ____. STOMACH The food is churned by the backward and forward movements of the stomach walls which changes the bolus from a solid state to a semi-liquid state called ____. The walls of the stomach is lined with mucosa which secretes ____ to lubricate the stomach walls. Specialised cells of the stomach secrete ____, which contains the ____ digesting enzyme pepsin in adults or renin in babies. ____ breaks down proteins in food into polypeptides. ____ coagulates or curdles milk in babies' stomach making it much easier for it to be digested. The juice also contains Hydrochloric acid (____), a very strong acid which acidifies the stomach, ____ the enzymes pepsin and renin which works best at ____ pH. HCL also kills microbes present in the food eaten and it helps break down macro or bigger molecules into small ones. The proteins and carbohydrates are now broken down into smaller units and so the food is semi-liquid and can now move to the duodenum of the small intestines. The ____ sphincter at the base of the stomach walls relaxes and opens the duodenum to allow the chyme to pass through. It then contracts to close the stomach. SMALL INTESTINES-DUODENUM The small intestines is made up of three parts: The ____, the ____ and the ____. Inside the duodenum, the chyme is mixed with ____ made by the pancreas which contains three enzymes: ____ which digest fats or lipids into glycerol and fatty acids, ____ which continues the digestion of the remaining starch in the food to maltose and glucose and the ____ digesting enzyme trypsin which breaks down the polypeptides into peptides or smaller chains of amino acids and single units as well. The pancreatic juice also contain ____ insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar level when food is eaten. ____ lowers blood sugar while ____ raises it. Along with pancreatic juice secretion, the liver also secretes ____, an alkaline substance which is stored in the ____ and passes through the bile duct and is deposited into the duodenum. Bile contains the base ____ which ____ the acidity of chyme, ____ fat or lipids present in foods into tiny droplets making it much easier for the enzyme lipase to complete its breakdown. It also makes the duodenum ____ providing the best pH for the pancreatic enzymes to work. SMALL INTESTINES-JEJUNUM The ____ is the middle part of the small intestine. It is between the duodenum and the ileum (last part of the small intestine). The jejunum helps to further digest food coming from the stomach. It absorbs nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and water from food so they can be used by the body. SMALL INTESTINES-ILEUM The ileum is responsible for the ____ of nutrients. It is well adapted to perform its role as it contains finger-like projections called ____ which ____ the surface area for the absorption of nutrients. Fat soluble vitamins A, D E and K along with glycerol and fatty acids are absorbed in the ____ of the villi where as the amino acids, glucose, fructose, galactose (simple sugar units) and water-soluble vitamins such as B and C are absorbed in the ____ and are taken to cells and tissues where they are needed for energy, growth, repair etc. LARGE INTESTINE The large intestine contains four parts which includes the ____, ____, ____ and ____. It’s all one, long tube that continues from the small intestine as food nears the end of its journey through your digestive system. Cecum The cecum is the ____ of the colon. The small intestine feeds into the cecum through a small channel in the side of it. It acts as a ____ where food from the small intestine arrives in the large intestine. When the cecum is full, it triggers the muscle movements of the colon to begin. The Colon perform these roles: 1. Reabsorbs the remaining ____ and ____ from food coming from the remaining food coming from the small intestine to make faeces or stool. 2. Secretes mucus to bind and lubricate the food waste to help it pass through smoothly as it is dehydrated. 3. It churns the food against its mucous lining and also moves it forward through periodic muscle contractions by a process called ____. 4. Digestion also happens here where good gut bacteria break down the remaining carbohydrates to produce key vitamins (____ and ____) that are absorbed through the mucus layer. RECTUM AND ANUS Egestion or ____ is the removal of the indigestible foods from the sigmoid colon to the anus. This indigestible food also contains dead cells from the intestinal wall, mucus and water. The Anus opens by the ____ of the ____ sphincter muscle to expel the faeces or stool and then closes by the ____ of the said muscle.

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