A detergent is a ____ which helps wash or clean things more effectively when using water as the ____. There are two types of ____: soapy and ____. ____ are the detergents we call ‘soaps’. Soaps are made by heating an ____ or vegetable oil with excess concentrated ____ or another alkali. This process is called ____. Soaps are generally the sodium, ____ or ammonium ____ of the ____. Soapless detergents are also called ____ and are formed from ____ (large ____ molecules) that have been treated with ____ to form organic acids, which are then converted to ____ A detergent molecule, whether soapy or soapless, consists of two parts: • a polar, ____ (waterloving) end, which is soluble in ____ and is often called the ‘____’ • a non-polar, ____ (waterhating) end, which is soluble in ____ and is called the ‘____’. Dirt clings to surfaces, skin or fabric by an ____ that surrounds the ____. The ____ of detergent molecules will attach to the oil film around the dirt particle and completely surround it, making a tiny droplet or ____. As all the tail ends are attached to the oil around the dirt particle, only the ____ of the detergent molecules will be exposed to the surface.

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