Artificial Selection - man driven selective breeding of organisms for certain traits, Natural Selection - When nature determines which traits will remain in a population., Overproduction - More babies being born than are dying., Evolution - The cumulative changes in a population over time., Homologous structures - Anatomically similar structures that have been modified for the environment., Vestigial structures - Reduced form of a functional structure that indicates common ancestry, Analogous structures - Structures that perform a similar function yet are not anatomically similar., Biogeography - The study of the distribution of species around the world., Fitness - An organisms ability to survive and reproduce in their environment., The Hardy-Weinberg Principle - Populations will remain in genetic equilibrium unless they are acted upon by a force., Genetic drift - Random changes in allele frequency due to chance., Founder effect - Small subset of a population moves to a new location., Bottleneck - Large population declines and then rebounds., Stabilizing selection - When the ends of the bell-curve are less fit than the middle., Directional selection - When one end of the bell-curve is more fit than the other., Disruptive selection - When the middle of the bell-curve is less fit than the ends of the curve., Allopatric speciation/geographic isolation - When a population is divided by a geographic barrier., Behavioral Isolation - When populations are separated by behavioral differences., Temporal Isolation - When populations are separated by seasonal differences., Adaptive Radiation - When species diversify quickly over a short period of time., Gradualism - Evolution occurs in small steps over time., Punctuated Equilibrium - Evolution occurs with sudden bursts of change followed by periods of stability., Convergent Evolution - When species look alike yet have no common ancestry, only a common environment.,
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