Application Layer: selects appropriate protocol for the communication // protocol mentioned by example ( POP / HTTP );, is to interact with the user via the email client / web browser;, Transport Layer: establishes end to end communication , Destination and source application level client/server identified by port numbers;, uses these port numbers to route reassembled requests/responses to correct application layer client/server;, splits and reassembles requests/responses into packets/from packets;, Packets are numbered by this layer;, Network Layer: adds source and destination IP addresses;, Routers use destination IP addresses to route packets to destination (packet routing), strips IP address (when receiving), Link Layer: Adds source and destination hardware MAC addresses;, Deals with physical connection/cabling;, includes network card / drivers, Strips MAC address (when receiving), Moves packets between 2 internet hosts;,

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