Crossing Over - Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Causes genetic variation in offspring, Meiosis - A type of cell division that creates gametes. It results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell., Gametes - Sex cells (sperm and egg), Somatic Cells - Body cells (skin, brain, muscle, etc), Fertilization - Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell, Zygote - Fertilized egg, Haploid - having a single set of unpaired chromosomes (HALF of a diploid) (23), Diploid - containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent (double of a haploid) (23 pairs=46), Prophase 1 - Phase of meiosis where crossing over occurs, Genetic Variation - Differences among individuals in the composition of their genes, Homologous Chromosomes - Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes., Prophase - Chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms, Metaphase - Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, Anaphase - Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell, Telophase - Cleavage Furrow, Chromosomes - threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes, Mitosis - part of eukaryotic cell division during which somatic cell nucleus divides,

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