Social Learning Theory - Bandura: observational learning, direct reinforcement, vicarious reinforcement , social conditioning, imitation, encoding, role models / praise / punishment, same-sex model, novel actions, hammer / gun, watched / observed, external validity, ethical, snap-shot, long-term effects unknown, behaviour normalised, expression of anger/frustration, behaviour internalised, scope is good, explains a range of crimes, could explain non-violent crimes too, Physiological Theory - Lombroso: Atavistic (primitive) features, criminality inherited, born criminal, distinguishing physical features, genetic throwbacks, evolutionary throwbacks, wild, untamed, misfits, thief: small eyes, murderer: bloodshot eyes and big hawk-like nose, tattoos, examined 4000 offenders, 40% of Italian criminals had atavistic features, used a scientific method, did not use a control group, deterministic (explain), scientific racism (some features match certain races only), Has links to eugenics (explain), out-dated, science has developed significantly since 1876,

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