Genetic theories: XYY - XYY links to increase aggression and slower then average learning., Twin and Adoption studies - Monozygotic twins “identical twins”- All of the genes are the same., Adoptions shows - Adoptions shows and further implement that biologically people commit crime., Lombroso - criminals humans who failed to involve in the past as the same pace as us. Biological inferior/physical characteristics, Sheldon - He advanced the theory of Lombroso it linked to a persons physical form. Body build linked to personality and temperament., Brain abnormality - Raine 1994 used PET scans to study the living brains of impulsive killers. Damage was found in pre-frontal cortex which controls impulsive behavior., Neurochemical imbalance - A chemical imbalance in the brain is said to occur when there's either too much or too little of certain chemicals, called neurotransmitters, in the brain., Social Learning Theory - In 1977 Albert Bandura added to already existing learning of theory. He relied on observational learning, Eysenck - Developed a very influential model of personality. Identified 2 main dimensions Extroversion(socially bored , crave excitement , enjoy change) and neuroticism (reserved, liked to plan, serious and reliable), Kohlberg’s moral reasoning theory - 1958-Moral reasoning changes with age. He uses story telling technique to tell us the answers., Marxism - Marxism is another structural theory like functionalism (Merton and Durkheim), Functionalism - Merton’s Strain Theory Functionalism Is a structural approach to sociology. They believe that like all other actions of individuals in society they commit crime also because of the society in which they live., Functionalism: Durkheim - crime is functional/inevitable and normal, Labelling theory - Interactionism AKA labelling theory is the opposite to structural theory. They don’t look at society as a whole and how it causes the behaviour of social groups i.e. poverty., Realism: Left realism - See society as an unequal capitalist one, Right realism - See street crime particularly as a growing problem which destroys communities threatening societies work ethic.,




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