GRAMMAR Syllabuses (before 70s) - They consisted of a progression of discrete grammatical items to be mastered., GRAMMAR Methodology (before 70s) - It consisted of the presentation of rules and example sentences followed by drilling of grammatical patterns., GRAMMAR (before 70s) - Manipulation of sentence level structures, with little or no context., COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE - It is the ability to produce correct sentences and to know when, where, and with whom to use them., CLT Syllabuses - They are designed around semantic notions and functions., LANGUAGE - A resource for communication - “meaning potential”, GRAMMAR (SFL) - A set of interrelated systems from which contain “options” for the speaker to choose, according to the meaning he/she wants to make, 2L LEARNING - It involves gaining control over: The systems of options of the 2L; - Which options to select to make particular meanings; - Configurations of grammatical functions. , LEARNING STRUCTURES (rules) - It’s only possible if the students have reached the appropriate stage of development, INPUT - Samples of language to which learners are exposed. Involves strategies such as: Mode Noticing Level, PRACTICE - Learners’ use of specific gram. features in production. Involves strategies such as: Channel Interaction Ss production , GRAMMAR TEACHING - It needs to be integrated into the teaching of speaking, listening, reading and writing skills., GRAMMAR LESSON - It should involve descriptions of grammar which reflect authentic language and show how grammar is a resource for exchanging meaning in context., ENGLISH LANGUAGE - It needs to be taught through engaging learners in meaningful and motivating activities., LEARNING A LANGUAGE - Learning how mean differently: 1. How to cast different meanings into different wording 2. Make new meanings in a new culture,
Lock G. 1997. Functional English Grammar. - Chapter 13
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