Fertile Crescent - An area of fertile land in the Middle East located by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This is where ancient civilizations flourished, city-states - The basic units of Sumerian civilization- a small area surrounding a large city, theocracy - A government where priests rule in the name of god or gods (divine right), ziggurat - A temple where Sumerians believed gods and goddesses ruled the city, these structures served as shrines, empire - A group of states (city-states) under a single authority, Code of Hammurabi - A strict and harsh set of laws in ancient Mesopotamian times, created by the Babylonian king, cuneiform - Wedge-shaped writing on clay tablets. This was the writing system of the Sumerians, polytheistic - to worship multiple gods or deities, patriarchal - A society controlled by men, or a society that favors men. Women typically have very few privileges or rights., cultural diffusion - a place where ideas, customs, religious beliefs, and technologies spread., eddubas - A school where cuneiform was taught., cavalry - soldiers on horseback, Zoroastrianism - A monotheistic religion that developed in early Persia and stressed the fight between the forces of good and the forces of evil and how eventually the forces of good would prevail., monotheistic - to worship one God., irrigate - to bring water to crops usually through canals, ditches or pipes., scribe - a person who copied written records and had written letters.,

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