Chemistry - the study of the makeup, structure, and properties of substances and the changes that occur to them (the study of matter), Atom - the smallest unit of any elemental substance that maintains the characteristics of that substance, Nucleus - central core of an atom, contains protons and neutrons, Sub-atomic Particles - Make up an atom; proton, neutron, electron, Proton - positively charged subatomic particle, Neutron - neutral, or non-charged, subatomic particles, Electron - negatively charged subatomic particles; spin around the nucleus in an orbital, Chemical Changes - occur whenever new substances with different chemical and physical properties are formed; produces a change in color, odor, or flavor, or releases a gas, Element - a substance that contains only one kind of atom, Periodic Table - Chart showing how elements relate and react to one another, Atomic Number - number of protons in the nucleus in each atom of that element, Atomic Mass - sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons in an atom, Groups (in the periodic table) - all elements in these have the same number of electrons in the outer orbital; separated into columns, Periods (in the periodic table) - All of the elements in these have the same number of atomic orbitals, Compounds - substances in which 2 or more elements chemically combine; Composed of two or more elements in a specific ratio, Molecule - The basic unit of any compound, Chemical Formula - a combination of symbols of elements making up a compound, Chemical Bond - The force that holds 2 atoms together; electrons form this bond, Mixtures - substances that are put together, but not chemically combined, Homogeneous Mixtures - uniform distribution of particles, Heterogeneous Mixtures - nonuniform distribution of particles, Pure Substance - matter in which all the basic units are the same, Organic Compounds - contain chains or rings of carbon, Inorganic Compounds - contain no carbon or only single carbon atoms, Physical Change - involves changing shape, size, temperature and/or the physical state, Phase Change - a physical change in the visible structure without changing the molecular structure,

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