Plessy v. Ferguson - Supreme Court case which upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws under the “separate but equal” doctrine, Jim Crow Laws - State & local laws that legalized racial segregation, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka - Supreme Court case which unanimously ruled that segregation in public schools violated the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause, Little Rock Nine - The group of African American high-school students who challenged racial segregation in the public schools of Little Rock, Arkansas, Montgomery Bus Boycott - Mass protest against segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, AL, Greensboro Sit-Ins - Nonviolent protest against the segregated lunch counter in Greensboro, NC, Freedom Rides - Bus trips staged by black & white protesters to test a recent court decision outlawing segregation in interstate travel, Thurgood Marshall - NAACP lawyer won won the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954, Elizabeth Eckford - One of nine black students to desegregate Little Rock's Central High School in 1957, Emmett Till - 14-year-old African American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955 after whistling at a white woman, Rosa Parks - African American woman whose refusal to give up her bus seat to a white passenger on a segregated bus led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Martin Luther King - Civil rights leaders who helped to organize the Montgomery Bus Boycott, John Lewis - African American man who was beaten by a member of the KKK during Freedom Rides in 1961, Diane Nash - African American woman who helped organize the Nashville sit-ins and worked to continue the Freedom Rides after the Riders were stranded in Alabama, Claudette Colvin - Fifteen year old African American girl who was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white woman on a Montgomery, AL bus,

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