1) Give the definition of an ecosystem. 2) What term is used to describe a living factor which can affect distribution of organisms? 3) Which molecule is split in stage 1 of photosynthesis? 4) Apart from movement and undigested materials, what other way is energy lost from a food chain? 5) What term describes the overgrowth of algae? 6) Why are mutations important? 7) Give the definition for a predator. 8) Describe one way to minimise a source of error when using a thermometer. 9) What structure in the cell is the chlorophyll found in? 10) Name the process which allows energy to pass from one level of a food chain to the next. 11) Name the two chemicals farmers can use to increase food yield. 12) Define the term mutation. 13) What type of organism is always found at the start of a food chain? 14) What is a quadrat used to sample? 15) Name the process plants use to produce sugar. 16) Name the two types of pyramid. 17) Give two alternatives to the use of pesticides. 18) What process is described as survival of the fittest? 19) Give the definition of a species. 20) Give the definition of an omnivore. 21) What instrument is used to measure soil moisture? 22) Which term describes all of the organisms that live within a habitat? 23) Describe one way to minimise a source of error when using a quadrat. 24) What is the main product of photosynthesis? 25) The sugar produced in photosynthesis can be converted into two other substances, name them. 26) Which type of pyramid shows the number of organisms at each level of a food chain? 27) Give the definition for bioaccumualtion. 28) Why are new alleles produced by mutation important? 29) Give examples of ecological isolation barriers. 30) Give the definition of a community. 31) When does competition occur in an ecosystem? 32) How is a light meter used? 33) Name a type of key used to identify organisms. 34) Light energy in the sun is trapped by which pigment in the plant? 35) Name the second stage of photosynthesis. 36) Describe the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis. 37) Apart from heat and movement, what other way is energy lost from a food chain? 38) What effect does over-use of nitrates have on biodiversity? 39) Describe biological control. 40) What makes it possible for a population to evolve over time in response to changing environmental conditions? 41) Name one environmental factor which can increase the rate of mutations. 42) Give the definition of a habitat. 43) Give the definition of a species. 44) What are food chains? 45) Give the definition for intraspecific competition. 46) What is an abiotic factor? 47) Name three examples of biotic factors. 48) What is a pitfall trap used to sample? 49) Describe at least two possible sources of error when using a pitfall trap. 50) Which two products from the light reactions does stage 2 of photosynthesis require? 51) Name the form of energy light energy is converted into during the light reactions. 52) State the three ways energy is lost from a food chain. 53) Which type of pyramid shows the total available energy of the living organisms (population) at each level of a food chain? 54) What is food yield? 55) Why do plants require nitrates? 56) Define the term adaptation. 57) What is a selective advantage? 58) Describe the first stage of speciation. 59) Give the definition of biodiversity. 60) Give the definition of a herbivore. 61) Describe one way to minimise a source of error when using a light meter. 62) Give an example of an indicator species. 63) What is the fate of oxygen produced through water splitting? 64) Explain why photosynthesis cannot occur at very high temperatures. 65) Give the definition for a pyramid of energy. 66) Give one alternative to the use of fertilisers. 67) Explain how pesticides can increase food yield. 68) What is an allele? 69) Describe the third stage of speciation. 70) Which term describes animals which hunt and kill other animals (prey) for food? 71) Which type of diagram shows all of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem? 72) Give the definition for interspecific competition. 73) What is a biotic factor? 74) Describe two ways to minimise sources of error when using a pitfall trap. 75) Chemical energy in the plant is used to generate which molecule? 76) Name the first stage of photosynthesis. 77) The sugar produced in photosynthesis can be converted into two other substances, name them AND describe their use in the cell. 78) Why is it becoming more important for farmers to have an increased food yield? 79) What name is given to the way in which fertilisers get from the soil into freshwater ecosystems? 80) Give examples of geographical isolation barriers. 81) Describe the fourth stage of speciation. 82) Which term describes all the organisms (the community) living in a particular habitat and the non-living components with which they organisms interact? 83) Give the definition of a niche. 84) Name three examples of abiotic factors. 85) Which type of energy is the light energy trapped by the chlorophyll in the plant converted into? 86) State the location of chlorophyll in a plant cell. 87) State the term used to describe the build-up of toxic substances in living organisms. 88) How do algal blooms lead to the death of aquatic plants? 89) How can you be sure that two different species have been formed through speciation? 90) Describe the second stage of speciation.

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