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Chromosome - a long strand of DNA that contains multiple genes; found in the nucleus of cells, Gene - a heritable unit represented in a section of DNA that contains cellular instructions for an aspect of the organism’s form and/or function, DNA - molecules found in the nucleus of a cell and that contain encoded genetic information for the development and function of an organism, Phenotype - observable feature resulting from an individual’s combination of alleles for particular traits, Genotype - alleles responsible for the characteristics displayed for a given trait, Meiosis - a special type of cell division resulting in the formation of gametes; produces cells with half the number of chromosomes of the parent, Mitosis - cell division including stages of DNA replication, resulting in two identical daughter cells, Mutation - a permanent change that occurs to an organism’s DNA, Gamete - a specialised reproductive cell of an organism, Homozygous - having the same alleles for a given gene, Heterozygous - having different alleles for a given gene, Inheritance - the process by which genetic information is passed on from one generation to the next, Dihybrid cross - describes a mating experiment between two organisms that are identically hybrid for two traits., Monohybrid cross - is a mating between two organisms with different variations at one genetic chromosome of interest., Translation - Translation is the final step on the way from DNA to protein. It is the synthesis of proteins directed by a mRNA template., Transcription - Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase., Allele - a different version of the same gene; can be dominant or recessive, The central dogma - describes the two-step process, transcription and translation, by which the information in genes flows into proteins: DNA → RNA → protein., Incomplete dominance -  is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele., Codominance - is a form of dominance wherein the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed., Sex-linked genes - Genes that are carried by either sex chromosome, Codon - A codon is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis., Haploid - describes a cell that contains a single set of chromosomes. The term can also refer to the number of chromosomes in egg or sperm cells, which are also called gametes., Diploid - Having two sets of chromosomes or double the haploid number of chromosomes in the germ cell., mRNA - carries a portion of the DNA code to other parts of the cell for processing., tRNA - is a type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence into a protein., rRNA - molecule in cells that forms part of the protein-synthesizing organelle known as a ribosome and that is exported to the cytoplasm to help translate the information in messenger RNA (mRNA) into protein., Pedigree - can be drawn once phenotypic data is collected from several generations. Careful analysis will allow you to determine whether the trait is dominant or recessive. , Amino Acid - are the building blocks of proteins,

12 Genetics Tier 3 words


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