1) The present perfect is composed of two elements: a) The presente tense of be + the past participle of the main verb. b) The present tense of have + the past participle of the main verb. 2) We use the present perfect for actions that happened a) At a specified time. b) At an unspecified time. 3) We use also the p. perfect to talk about actions that happened a) Within the last few minutes. b) a long time ago 4) ... are signal words of the p. perfect. a) Ever, never, just, already and yet b) Last month, yesterday and ago 5) Yet is used in a) affirmative senteces. b) interrogative and negative sentences. 6) We use have/has been to, to refer to someone who a) has gone to a place but has not returned yet. b) went to a place and has already returned. 7) After It's the first time we use a) the present simple. b) the present perfect. 8) We use must for a) a self-imposed necessity or obbligation. b) something that is obligatory because of a law. 9) Mustn't expresses a) absence of obbligation to do something. b) prohibition. 10) We use needn't to express a) absence of obbligation to do something. b) prohibtion.

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